Synsets for "hypoactive"

Synset: hypoactive.s.01

Synonyms: hypoactive


Definition: abnormally inactive


Lemmas: hypoactive underactive





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Delirium Delirium may present in hyperactive, hypoactive, or mixed forms. In its hyperactive form, it is manifested as severe confusion and disorientation, developing with relatively rapid onset and fluctuating in intensity. In its hypoactive form, it is manifested by an equally sudden withdrawal from interaction with the outside world. Delirium may occur in a mixed type where someone may fluctuate between both hyper- and hypoactive periods. Delirium as a syndrome is one which occurs more frequently in people in their later years. However, when it occurs in the course of a critical illness, delirium has been found to occur in young and old patients at relatively even rates.
Delirium Motor activity alterations are very common in delirium. They have been used to define clinical subtypes (hypoactive, hyperactive, mixed) though studies are inconsistent as to the prevalence of these subtypes. Cognitive impairments and EEG slowing are comparable in hyperactive and hypoactive patients though other symptoms may vary. Psychotic symptoms occur in both although the prevailing stereotype suggests that they only occur in hyperactive cases. Hypoactive cases are prone to non detection or misdiagnosis as depression. A range of studies suggest that motor subtypes differ regarding underlying pathophysiology, treatment needs, and prognosis for function and mortality though inconsistent subtype definitions and poorer detection of hypoactives impacts interpretation of these findings.
Desire discrepancy In one of the previous editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-4), a particularly low degree of sexual desire would have been the main diagnostic criteria for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). However, since the release of the DSM-5 in 2013, the disorder has been redefined and distinguished by gender differences being female sexual interest/arousal disorder and male hypoactive sexual desire disorder.
Kenneth L. Davis Davis's work on schizophrenia has shown that oligodendroglia cells and myelin play roles in the disease's pathophysiology and that dopamine – long thought to be merely hyperactive in a schizophrenic brain – is actually "hypoactive" in different regions.
Sexual anhedonia Sexual anhedonia, also known as pleasure dissociative orgasmic disorder, is a condition in which an individual cannot feel pleasure from an orgasm. It is thought to be a variant of hypoactive sexual desire disorder.
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder In the revision of the DSM-III, published in 1987 (DSM-III-R), ISD was subdivided into two categories: Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder and Sexual Aversion Disorder (SAD). The former is a lack of interest in sex and the latter is a phobic aversion to sex. In addition to this subdivision, one reason for the change is that the committee involved in revising the psychosexual disorders for the DSM-III-R thought that term "inhibited" suggests psychodynamic cause (i.e. that the conditions for sexual desire are present, but the person is, for some reason, inhibiting their own sexual interest.) The term "hypoactive sexual desire" is more awkward, but more neutral with respect to the cause. The DSM-III-R estimated that about 20% of the population had HSDD. In the DSM-IV (1994), the criterion that the diagnosis requires "marked distress or interpersonal difficulty" was added.
Norepinephrine–dopamine disinhibitor Another drug that has been referred to as an NDDI in the medical literature is flibanserin, which is approved as a treatment for hypoactive sexual desire disorder in premenopausal women. Flibanserin disinhibits norepinephrine and dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex by activating 5-HT receptors in this area.
Parathyroid gland Parathyroid disease is conventionally divided into states where the parathyroid is overactive (hyperparathyroidism), and states where the parathyroid is under- or hypoactive (hypoparathyroidism). Both states are characterised by their symptoms, which relate to the excess or deficiency of parathyroid hormone in the blood.
Fabre-Kramer Pharmaceuticals Fabre-Kramer Pharmaceuticals is a pharmaceutical company that specializes in the development of psychotropic drugs. Products in their current development pipeline include gepirone and FKB01MD for major depression, gepirone and FKW00GA for generalized anxiety disorder, gepirone for hypoactive sexual desire disorder, FKF02SC for schizophrenia, and FKK01PD for Parkinson's disease.
Straight gyrus A specific function for the straight gyrus has not yet been brought to light; however, in males, greater activation of the straight gyrus within the medial orbitofrontal cortex while observing sexually visual pictures has been strongly linked to HSDD (hypoactive sexual desire disorder).
Bremelanotide Positive results of bremelanotide in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in two late-stage phase III clinical trials were announced by Palatin Technologies in November 2016. The company is expected to file a New Drug Application(NDA) for bremelanotide for this indication in the United States in the second half of 2017.
Biology of depression One review reported hypoactivity in the prefrontal cortex of those with depression compared to controls. The prefrontal cortex is involved in emotional processing and regulation, and dysfunction of this process may be involved in the etiology of depression. One study on antidepressant treatment found an increase in PFC activity in response to administration of antidepressants. One meta analysis published in 2012 found that areas of the prefrontal cortex were hypoactive in response to negative stimuli in depressed patients. One study suggested that areas of the prefrontal cortex are part of a network of regions including dorsal and pregenual cingulate, bilateral middle frontal gyrus, insula and superior temporal gyrus that appear to be hypoactive in depressed patients. However the authors cautioned that the exclusion criteria, lack of consistency and small samples limit results.
Flibanserin Flibanserin, sold under the trade name Addyi, is a medication approved for the treatment of pre-menopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). The medication increases the number of satisfying sexual events per month by about one half over placebo from a starting point of about two to three. The certainty of the estimate is low. The side effects of dizziness, sleepiness, and nausea occur about three to four times more often.
Adie syndrome Clinical exam may reveal sectoral paresis of the iris sphincter or vermiform iris movements. The tonic pupil may become smaller (miotic) over time which is referred to as "little old Adie's". Testing with low dose (1/8%) pilocarpine may constrict the tonic pupil due to cholinergic denervation supersensitivity. A normal pupil will not constrict with the dilute dose of pilocarpine. CT scans and MRI scans may be useful in the diagnostic testing of focal hypoactive reflexes.
Female sexual arousal disorder It is also worth noting that female sexual arousal disorder is rarely a solitary diagnosis. Due to its high rates of comorbidity with hypoactive sexual desire disorder, a new disorder is being proposed for the DSM-V: Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder. The diagnostic criterion "persistent or recurrent" symptoms is also problematic in that it is vague and could lead to too much reliance on clinical judgment.
Female sexual arousal disorder Heather Hartely of Portland State University, Oregon is critical of the shift from female sexual dysfunction being framed as an arousal problem to a desire problem. In her article, “The ‘Pinking’ of Viagra Culture,” she states that the change from female sexual arousal disorder to hypoactive sexual desire disorder is indicative of ‘disease mongering’ tactics by the drug industry through an effort to match up a drug to some subcomponent of the DSM classification.
Testosterone Studies conducted in rats have indicated that their degree of sexual arousal is sensitive to reductions in testosterone. When testosterone-deprived rats were given medium levels of testosterone, their sexual behaviors (copulation, partner preference, etc.) resumed, but not when given low amounts of the same hormone. Therefore, these mammals may provide a model for studying clinical populations among humans suffering from sexual arousal deficits such as hypoactive sexual desire disorder.
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) or inhibited sexual desire (ISD) is considered a sexual dysfunction and is characterized as a lack or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity, as judged by a clinician. For this to be regarded as a disorder, it must cause marked distress or interpersonal difficulties and not be better accounted for by another mental disorder, a drug (legal or illegal), some other medical condition, or asexuality. A person with ISD will not start, or respond to their partner's desire for, sexual activity.
Dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia It is still thought that dopamine mesolimbic pathways may be hyperactive, resulting in hyperstimulation of D receptors and positive symptoms. There is also growing evidence that, conversely, mesocortical pathway dopamine projections to the prefrontal cortex might be hypoactive (underactive), resulting in hypostimulation of D receptors, which may be related to negative symptoms and cognitive impairment. The overactivity and underactivity in these different regions may be linked, and may not be due to a primary dysfunction of dopamine systems but to more general neurodevelopmental issues that precede them. Increased dopamine sensitivity may be a common final pathway.
Flibanserin Flibanserin is used for hypoactive sexual desire disorder among women. Those receiving flibanserin report a 0.5 increase compared to placebo in the number of times they had “satisfying sexual events”. In those on flibanserin it rose from 2.8 to 4.5 times a month while women receiving placebo reported also an increase of “satisfying sexual events” from 2.7 to 3.7 times a month. The onset of the flibanserin effect was seen from the first timepoint measured after 4 weeks of treatment and maintained throughout the treatment period.